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Statements

United WA State Party and the United WA State Army. "The Bondage of Opium: The Agony of the WA People: A Proposal and a Plea." Statement.

Purpose: To eradicate opium growing and stop the production of heroin in all the territory controlled by the WA.

Main Issues: Eradication of opium in the WA state; Achievement of the WA autonomous region; rehabilitation and development of WA state; restoration of real democracy in Burma.

 

Research Papers

"Alternative Development or Business as Usual? China’s Opium Substitution Policy in Burma and Laos," Drug Policy Briefing 33 (2010).

Summary: A significant part of opium and its derivative heroin on the market in China originates from the “Golden Triangle” – roughly the area that spans northern Burma, Thailand and Laos. It supplies a large number of injecting drugs users in China, and is considered a major security concern by the Chinese authorities. To counter this threat, the Chinese government has launched opium substitution programmes in northern Burma and Laos. The schemes, promoting agricultural investments by Chinese companies, have seen a dramatic increase in recent years.
Kramer, Tom. "From Golden Triangle to Rubber Belt ? The Future of Opium Bans in the Kokang and Wa Regions," Drug Policy Briefing 29 (2009).

Summary: In the Kokang and Wa regions in northern Burma opium bans have ended over a century of poppy cultivation. The bans have had dramatic consequences for local communities. They depended on opium as a cash cop, to buy food, clothing, and medicines. The bans have driven poppy-growing communities into chronic poverty and have adversely affected their food security. Very few alternatives are being offered to households for their survivial.

 

Reports

Bitter Pills: Breaking the Silence Surrounding Drug Problems in the Mon Community. Kanchanaburi: Human Rights Foundation of Monland-Burma, 2013.

Purpose: Preliminary account of drug use and trading in Mon communities.

Content: This report concerns drug use in the “Mon community” in Burma, referring to Mon individuals living in Mon and Karen States. It begins by explaining the background of drug use and trading in Mon communities before moving on to focus on the particularly acute drug problem reported among the young Mon population. Consideration is then given to individual testimonies, followed by a detailed exploration of various authorities’ responses. The report concludes by issuing a set of recommendations suggesting how the broad set of responsible parties can best move forward on the issue.

South-East Asia Opium Survey 2013. Vienna: UN Office on Drugs and Crime, 2013.

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Shan Drug Watch. Shan Herald Agency for News, 2012.

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Kramer, Tom and Kevin Woods. Financing Dispossession: China's Opium Substitution Programme in Northern Burma. Amsterdam: Transnational Institute, 2012.

Purpose: Outline of the on-the-ground effects of China's poppy substitution policy on (ex) poppy farmers in northern Burma.

Content: This report examines how Chinese agricultural investments are reshaping land ownership, livelihoods and populations in post-war northern Burma with serious socio-economic implications for local ethnic communities.

South-East Asia Opium Survey 2012. Vienna: UN Office on Drugs and Crime, 2012.

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Shan Drug Watch. Shan Herald Agency for News, 2011.

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South-East Asia Opium Survey 2011. Vienna: UN Office on Drugs and Crime, 2011.

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Shan Drug Watch. Shan Herald Agency for News, 2010.

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Myanmar: Situation Assessment on Amphetamine-Type Stimulants. Vienna: UN Office on Drugs and Crime, 2010.

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International Narcotics Control Strategy Report: Money Laundering and Financial Crimes. Washington: US State Department, 2010.

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International Narcotics Control Strategy Report: Drug and Chemical Control. Washington: US State Department, 2010.

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South-East Asia Opium Survey 2010. Vienna: UN Office on Drugs and Crime, 2010.

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Shan Drug Watch. Shan Herald Agency for News, 2009.

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Opium Poppy Cultivation in South-East Asia. Vienna: UN Office on Drugs and Crime, 2009.

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Patterns and Trends of Amphetamine-Type Stimulants and Other Drugs in East and South East Asia (and Neighbouring Regions). Vienna: UN Office on Drugs and Crime, 2009.

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International Narcotics Control Strategy Report: Drug and Chemical Control. Washington: US State Department, 2009.

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International Narcotics Control Strategy Report: Money Laundering and Financial Crimes. Washington: US State Department, 2008.

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International Narcotics Control Strategy Report: Drug and Chemical Control. Washington: US State Department, 2008.

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Shan Drug Watch. Shan Herald Agency for News, 2007.

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Opium Poppy Cultivation in South East Asia. Vienna: UN Office on Drugs and Crime, 2007.

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Poisened Flowers: The Impact of Spiralling Drug Addiction on Palaung  Women in Burma. The Paulaung Women's Organization, 2006.

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Opium Poppy Cultivation in the Golden Triangle. Vienna: UN Office on Drugs and Crime, 2006.

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Jelsma, Martin, Tom Kramer and David Aronson. Downward Spiral: Banning Opium in Afghanistan and Burma. Amsterdam: Transnational Institute, 2005.

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Myanmar Opium Survey 2005. Vienna: UN Office on Drugs and Crime, 2005.

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Yawnghwe, Chao Tzang. Hand in Glove: The Burma Army and the drug trade in Shan State. Shan Herald Agency for News, 2005.

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Myanmar Opium Survey 2004. Vienna: UN Office on Drugs and Crime, 2004.

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 Replacing Opium in Kokang and Wa Special Regions. Joint Kokang-Wa Humanitarian Needs Assessment Team, 2003.

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Myanmar Opium Survey 2003. Vienna: UN Office on Drugs and Crime, 2003.

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Myanmar Opium Survey 2002. Vienna: UN Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention, 2002.

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