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FEDERALISM   Tags: decentralization  

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Schaeffer, Heinz. "The Austrian Federalism: Situation and Perspectives." In Federalismo y Regionalismo, edited by Diego Valadés and José María Serna de la Garza, 119-154. Mexico City: Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas, 2005.
About: The book focuses on the development and changes within the Austrian Federation, the structural elements of the Austrian Federation and its constitutional institutions, Austria's political system and the value of Federalism, and finally relates on Federalism in Europe, before it concludes with Austria's experiences with Federalism.
Sturm, Roland. "Austria: Federal Republic of Austria." In Handbook of Federal Countries, edited by  Ann L. Griffiths and Karl Nerenberg, 46-57. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2005.

About: This book deals with the history and development of federalism in Austria, the constitutional provisions on federalism and recent political dynamics.


Frey, Eric. "Federalism: A Popular System- But Does it Make Sense?" Financial Times, September 27, 2011.
Sonntag, Niklas. "Federalism and Territory: The Austrian Perspective," International Association of Centers for Federal Studies (2012).
Summary: The issues discussed in this paper include the following: Arithmetical equality in Austrian federalism; Territory in the Austrian federal constitution; Recent developments affecting the importance of territory.
Bußjäger, Peter. "Federalism Without Federal Values? Austrian Citizens' Attitudes Towards Federalism and their Effects on Political Culture," Federal Governance and Forum of Federations (2005).

Summary: "Federalism in Austria faces the challenge to convince citizens of the values of differentiation among the legal systems which comprise this comparatively small country. It appears to be time for a re-construction of Austrian federalism by applying the concept of differentiated, innovative federalism." [Author]



Bayenet, Benoit and de Bruycker. “Belgium: A Unique Evolving Federalism.” In Fiscal Fragmentation in Decentralized Countries: Subsidiarity, Solidarity and Asymmetry, edited Richard M. Bird and Robert D. Ebel, 169, 207. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2007. [Google Books]
About: Even though Belgium has become a true federation, federalism takes a uique style because of the significant characteristics of its institutional structure compared with those of the typical federal state.
Fitzmaurice, John. The Politics of Belgium: A Unique Federalism. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1996. [Google Books]

About: "This book considers the effects of the country's internal divisiveness and presents a definitive introduction to Belgium's history, social and economic development, political system, and foreign policy - especially with regard to the EU." [Amazon]


Cullen, Richard. "Adaptive Federalism in Belgium," Faculty of Law, University of Hong Kong (2012).
Summary: "This article reviews the major (Federal) constitutional changes in Belgium which began with language related reforms in 1970. The historical background is discussed and some comparative observations are also made." [Author]
Van Wynsberghe, Caroline. "The 'Belgian' Example: Weaknesses of the Federal Formula as Implemented in Belgium," The Federal Idea (2011).
Summary: "This study examines the main characteristics of Belgian federalism. An in-depth analysis of this model clearly shows its weaknesses and limits. The specificities of Belgian federalism make it an example that other federations should be sure to avoid reproducing." [Author]

Bosnia & Herzegovina


Keil, Sören. "Federalism in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Complexities of a Peculiar Federal State." The New Federalist, November 16, 2006.



Bebler, Anton. "South-East European Federalism and Contemporary Bosnia and Herzegovina," Acta Slavica Iaponica 24 (2007): 1-23.

Summary: "This paper looks into the present malfunctioning post-Dayton arrangements in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the dilemmas related to badly needed institutional reforms in that country. Finally it examines the reasons for numerous failures and federalist prospects for the future, including the slow expansion into the region of the European Union." [Author]

Fox, William and Christine Wallich. "Fiscal Federalism in Bosnia-Herzegovina: the Dayton Challenge,"The World Bank, Central Europe Department (1997).

Summary: "The authors describe Bosnia's current arrangements in fiscal federalism, outline the unique challenges that the Dayton system proposed, and draw lessons for the design of fiscal federal systems in ethnically diverse economies.' [Publisher]



Gunlicks, Arthur. The Laender and German Federalism. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2003. [Google Books]

About: "This book provides a detailed introduction to how the Laender (the 16 states of Germany) function not only within the country itself but also within the wider context of European political affairs." [Publisher]

Umbach, Maiken (Ed.) German Federalism: Past, Present, Future. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.

About: "This book explores the German idea of federalism denoting 'diversity within unity'. Historians, linguists and political scientists examine how federalism emerged in the Holy Roman Empire, was re-shaped by nineteenth-century cultural movements, and was adopted by the unified state in 1871 and again after 1945." [Publisher]

Jeffrey, Charlie. Recasting German Federalism: The Legacies of Unification. New York: Pinter, 1999. [Google Books]

About: "This book analyzes the nature of pre-unification West German federalism and the unique challenge posed for the federal system by unification. It takes stock of key issues in the operation of post-unification federalism, including the policy process, the role of parties in federalism, conflicts of interest over financial allocations, and the impact of deepening European integration." [Amazon]



Faiola, Anthony and Michael Birnbaum. "Germany Offers Vision on Federalism for the European Union." The Washington Post, June 27, 2012.
Göpfert, Angela. "Federalism Weakens Germany in Europe." Deutsche Welle, October 10, 2005.



Renzsch, Wolfgang and Friedrich-Ebert-Foundation. "German Federalism in Historical Perspective: Federalism as a Substitute for a National State," Publius, the Journal of Federalism 19 (1989).
Summary: "The constitution of the Weimar Republic of 1919 turned the relations between the federation and the states upside down. The Weimar Republic came close to being a decentralized unitary state. The Nazi regime centralized it. After World War II, the West Germans and the Western Allies agreed on forming a federal type of government." [Author]


"Federalism in Switzerland no Hindrance to Social Change, Women's Anti-Discrimination Committee Told," Committee on Elimination and Discrimination Against Women, The United Nations, January 17, 2003. 



Fleiner, Thomas. "Federalism: Basic Structure and Value of Switzerland; Basic Developments in Swiss Federalism," Institute of Federalism, University of Freiburg (2000).
Summary:  This paper tackles the main challenges faced by Switzerland- globalization and European Intergration; Privatization and growing public debts; and migration- which will have important effects on federalism; and debates on wether the new constitution empower Switzerland to face those challenges with flexible, innovative and federalist policies.


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