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This is the "Democracy" page of the "FEDERALISM IN BURMA/MYANMAR" guide.
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Research Papers

Dapice, David & Vallely, Thomas. "Against the Odds: Building a Coalition- Using a New Federalism for Unity and Progress in Myanmar," ASH Center for Democratic Governance and Innovation, Harvard Kennedy School (2013).

Summary: "In exploring a possible approach toward unity and progress, this paper uses the framework developed in 'Why Nations Fail,' a recent book on economic and political development and also refers to the idea of “illiberal democracy” articulated by Fareed Zakaria. The basic idea is that a broad coalition of the incumbent party, the democratic opposition, ethnic groups and the military is needed to fundamentally change Myanmar’s past failed orientation." [Author]
McCarthy, Stephen. "Civil Society in Burma: From Military Rule to 'Disciplined Democracy.'" Griffin Asia Institute Regional Outlook Paper 37 (2012).
Summary: "The author argues that as Burma transitions from direct military rule, the country's elite continues to define the range of behaviors that civil society organizations can undertake. All actors must continue to work within the highly restrictive legislative environment, which necessarily slows the pace of political reform. Changes to the constitution are an important prerequisite for expanding the scope of civil society." [Publisher]

Sakhong, Lian H. "A Struggle for Democracy, Equality and Federalism in Burma: An Ethnic Perspective," Ethnic Nationalities Council (2008).

Summary: "This paper argues that federalism is the only viable solution to Burma’s current political crisis, including five long decades of civil war. Federalism, therefore, is essential to the ultimate success of the democracy movement, to guarantee political equality for all nationalities, the right of self-determination for all member states of the Union, and democratic rights for all citizens of the Union." [Author]


Challenges to Democratization in Burma: Perspectives on Multilateral and Bilateral Responses. International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, 2001.

Purpose: To create a clearer picture on the current situation and on how one might formulate future policies and strategies.

Content: This report looks at Burma’s relations with neighbouring states and other governments. It also looks at policies and measures adopted by the international community.


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