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This is the "National Reconciliation" page of the "BURMA/MYANMAR" guide.
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National Reconciliation Print Page


Wilson, Trevor. Myanmar's Long Road to National Reconciliation. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2006.

About: Official reassurances about continuing the 2003 "Road Map" process left many questions unanswered: Would political dialogue with opposition groups be resumed? How would increasingly restive ethnic groups respond? Would nascent civil society groups be able to play a role in national reconciliation? How would the new leadership deal with the flagging economy? What are the prospects for the large but under-funded and highly regulated agricultural sector? This book addresses these issues." [Amazon]

Research Papers

Kuppuswamy, CS. "Challenging the Reconciliation Process: Myanmar’s Ethnic Divide and Conflicts." Issue Brief 221, Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies (2013).

Summary: "The 2008 Constitution has to be scrapped or drastically revised (as amending it is a cumbersome process) to form a federal set up based on ethnicity or linguistic basis. Both have their own pit falls. Proportional representation, if introduced in the election process, could provide empowerment to minorities. A second Panglong type conference needs to be held to iron out the differences between the Government and the ethnic groups and among the ethnic groups." [Author]
Burma Centre for Ethnic Studies. "Burma's By-Elections a Change for Future Reconciliation?" Briefing Paper 5 (2012).

Summary: "The National League for Democracy's success in the by-election suggests that the country may be on course towards genuine democratic transition and reconciliation. However, it is imperative that President Thein Sein, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, and all ethnic actors work together to maintain this momentum and ensure that the county continues to move forward towards genuine change, an end to ethnic conflict, and equality for all peoples of the country." [Author]

Pierce, Patrick. "Impunity or Reconciliation in Burma’s Transition," ICTJ Briefing (2010).

Summary: "The Burmese government cannot change in a meaningful way until it eliminates the culture of impunity for human rights violations that has developed during the past 48 years. The international community can help this effort by establishing a commission of inquiry into the violations." [Author]
Yawnghwe, Chao-Tzang. "Burma and National Reconciliation: Ethnic Conflict and State-Society Dysfunction." Burma Lawyers' council (2001).
Summary: "It is maintained that Burma’s ‘ethnic conflict’ is not per se ethnic, but a conflict rooted in politics. Following the collapse of Burma’s General Ne Win’s military-socialist regime in 1988, the issue of ethnic conflict has attracted the attention from both observers and protagonists. This attention became heightened following the unraveling of the socialist bloc and the emergence of ethnic wars in those hitherto (presumed) stable socialist nation-states." [Author]


Routray, Bibhu Prasad. Myanmar's National Reconciliation: An Audit for Insurgencies and Ceasefires. Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies, 2013.

Purpose: Audit for insurgencies and ceasefires.

Content: "Myanmar's positive transformation in the past year in the political, administrative as well as legal realm has made the country a sought after destination. Even then, the country is miles away from durable peace. A number of ceasefire agreements with the ethnic armed insurgencies notwithstanding, peace remains tenuous. Unless both the government and the ethnic groups demonstrate continued commitment towards peace, the country's new found tranquillity may return to a state of hostility." [Author]

Kivimäki, Timo and Pedersen, Morten B. Burma: Mapping the Challenges and Opportunities for Dialogue and Reconciliation. Helsinki: Crisis Management Initiative, 2008.

Purpose: Map the conflict landscape.

Content: This report seeks to map the conflict landscape, including its history, the actors involved, and the main obstacles and opportunities for dialogue and reconciliation. It assesses the change processes currently underway in the country and considers relevant comparative experiences from similar transitions elsewhere.


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