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Republic of the Union of Myanmar. Framework for Economic and Social Reforms: Policy Priorities 2012-2015 Towards the Long-Term Goals of the National Comprehensive Development Plan. 2012. (in Burmese)

Purpose: To identify the economic and social reforms and policy priorities.

Content: The policy paper outlines the National Comprehensive Development Plan of the Government of Myanmar for 2012-2015.


Legal Documents

Law Amending Commercial Tax Law, September 29, 2011.

Parties: Pyidaungsu Hluttaw (Assembly of the Union)

Purpose: To amend the Law.

Main Agreements: This law rephrases the Commercial Tax Law.

Myanmar Special Economic Zone Law, State Peace and Development Council Law, January 27, 2011.

Parties: State Peace and Development Council

Purpose: To establish a Special Economic Zone Law in Myanmar.

Main Agreements: This law establishes Special Economic Zones to develop the industry of high technologies; to improve the goods processing, trading and service business; to enable the citizens to train, learn and transfer the high technologies; and to create more employment opportunities for the citizens. 

Labour Organization Law, October 11, 2011.

Parties: Pyidaungsu Hluttaw (Assembly of the Union)

Purpose: To improve the conditions of workers in a labour organisation.

Main Agreements: This law aims to protect the rights of the workers, to have good relations among the workers or between the employer and the worker, and to enable to form and carry out the labour organizations systematically and independently.



Taylor, Robert H. Burma, Political Economy under Military Rule. London: Hurst & Company, 2001. [Google Books]

About: "This volume aims to answer the following questions: What has been the cause of Burma's continuing political and economic stagnation? Why have international efforts to bring about change proved unsuccessful? Why have the democratic forces not forced the military to yield?" [Amazon]

Thein, Myat. Economic Development of Myanmar, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2004. [Google Books]

About: "An attempt has been made to present the major economic developments at different periods of time between 1948 and 2000 in a simple, but not over simplified, reader-friendly format so as to reach as wide an audience as possible." [Project Muse]

Fujita, Koichi and Mieno, Fumiharu, et al. Economic Transition in Myanmar After 1988: The Market Economy vs State Control. Singapore: National University of Singapore Press, 2009. [Google Books]

About: "This book presents an overall picture of economic development in Myanmar between 1988 and the early 2000s. The author show how the government attempted to deal with two key issues. The first was how to reform the inefficient socialistic economic system in conformity with a market economy, and the second was how to develop the agricultural and use the underdeveloped economy to alleviate mass poverty." [Monument Books]

Turku, Helga. Isolationist States in an Interdependent World. Ashgate: International University, 2009. [Google Books]
About: "This book examines extreme forms of self-imposed domestic and international isolation in an interdependent international system, noting the effects on both the immediate interests of a ruling regime and the long-term national interests of the state and the populace." [Amazon]

Research Papers

Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia. "Toward CADP 3: Regional Connectivity, the Comprehensive Asia Development Plan (CADP) and Myanmar Comprehensive Development Vision (MCDV)," ERIA.

Summary: "When we try to envisage a long-term development in Myanmar with high economic growth and narrowing development gaps, we should discuss how to achieve "high" and “balanced" growth, given the condition that the Myanmar government wants to catch up with forerunner ASEAN countries. This paper tries to address this issue and propose a two-polar growth strategy with border development and better connectivity, an idea that kills two birds with one stone." [Author]

Larkin, Stuart. "Myanmar at the Crossroads: Rapid Industrial Development or De-industrialization," (2012).
Summary: "The purpose of this study is to identify potential agents of change in Myanmar society that can facilitate rapid industrialization and recommend ways the international community can support private sector development by aiding such groups." [Author]
Myint, U. "Myanmar Economy: A Comparative View," Asia Paper (2009).

Summary: "A stated objective of Myanmar is to become a modern developed nation that will stand shoulder to shoulder with the countries of the world. How far has Myanmar come in achieving this goal, viewed from an economic perspective? Where does it stand at present in relation to other nations? This paper provides some thoughts along these lines by looking at Mynamar's official data." [Author]

Rieffel, Lex. "The Myanmar Economy: Tough Choices, Global Economy and Development," Brookings Working Paper 51 (2012).

Summary: "The global policy community and the media have focused heavily on the political changes and challenges, giving less attention to the economic changes and challenges than they probably deserve. This paper focuses on 21 high-priority economic issues facing the Thein Sein administration in mid-2012." [Author]



Euro-Burma Office. Political Monitor 1 - 23. Brussels: EBO, 2013.

Purpose: Update on current events in Myanmar.

Content: The EBO Political Monitor series (1-23) deals with economic, political and social developments inside Myanmar in 2013.

Heang Chhor, Heang, Richard Dobbs and et al. Myanmar’s Moment: Unique Opportunities, Major Challenges. McKinsey Global Institute, 2013. 

Purpose: Analysis of the investment atmosphere and the areas of growth in Myanmar.

Content: "This report discusses the challenges of meeting this ambitious goal and points to several areas that could help unlock high growth. The report finds that if current demographic and labor-productivity trends continue, Myanmar could grow by less than 4 percent a year." [Publisher]

Asian Development Bank. Myanmar in Transition: Opportunitites and Challenges. Manila: ADB, 2012.

Purpose: Analyzing the transition process by pointing at the opportunities and challenges in Myanmar.

Content: "The course of Myanmar’s future growth can be guided by three complementary development strategies: regional integration, inclusiveness, and environmental sustainability. This together with other matters are addressed in the report.  " [Author]

Euro-Burma Office. Political Monitor 1 - 38. Brussels: EBO, 2012.

Purpose: Update on current events in Myanmar.

Content: The EBO Political Monitor series (1-38) deals with economic, political and social developments inside Myanmar in 2012.

Myanmar, the Politics of Economic Reform. Brussels: International Crisis Group, 2012.

Purpose: Highlight the politics of economic reform in Myanmar.

Content: "Myanmar’s political transition and economic reconstruction are intimately entwined. Achieving either depends on achieving both. The ethnic peace processes are also closely bound up with the political economies of those border regions. As ceasefires are being secured, there will be new pressure to produce a peace dividend in these remote but resource-rich regions." [Author]

Euro-Burma Office. Political Monitor 1 - 38. Brussels: EBO, 2011.

Purpose: Update on current events in Myanmar.

Content: The EBO Political Monitor series (1-38) deals with economic, political and social developments inside Myanmar in 2011.


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