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Mining Print Page

Legal Documents

Myanmar Mines Rules, December 30, 1996.

 Parties: Ministry of Mines

Purpose: To determine the rules, rights and duties that the holder of the varying permits should follow.

Main Agreements: This law relates to the application and granting of Mineral Prospecting Permit, the Mineral Exploration Permit, the large and small scale Mineral Production Permit, the Subsistence Mineral Production Permit, the Integrated Permit for more than one operation out of the three operations of mineral prospecting, mineral exploration and mineral production, and the duties and rights for the holders of the above mentioned permits.

Myanmar Gemstone Law, September 29, 1995.

Parties: State Law and Order Restoration Council

Purpose: To establish and develop a gemstone and jewellery market.

Main Agreements: This law relates to matters concerning the Designation of Gemstone Tract, the Designation of Gemstone Blocks, the Gemstone Production Permit, the duties and rights of the company or society holding a permit, the permission for marketing of row gemstone, finished gemstone and jewellery, the formation of valuation body and functions and duties thereof, as well as other related matters.

Myanmar Mines Law, 1994.

Parties: State Law and Order Restoration Council

Purpose: Implementation of the Mineral Resources Policy of the Government.

Main Agreements: This law deals with the application and granting of permit, the duties of the holder of permit, the right of utilization of land and water for mineral production, royalty, the designation of mineral reserve area and gemstone tract, the duties of the chief inspector, the taking of action by administrative means, the issue of prohibition, and other related matters.

Private Industrial Enterprise Law, November 26, 1990.

Parties: The State Law and Restoration Council

Purpose: To determine the rules, duties and rights relating to private enterprises.

Main Agreements: This law deals with the registration of private industrial enterprises, the formation of a coordination body, the duties and powers of the supervisor body, the duties and rights of the entrepreneur, the powers of the director general, the duties and powers of the officer-in-charge, in addition to other related matters.




Fong-Sam, Yolanda. 2010 Minerals Yearbook:The Mineral Industry of Burma. US Geological Survey, 2012. 
About: "The exploration for and production of metals and industrial minerals is expected to increase as the development of the projects that started in 2010 progresses and mines and plants start being commissioned in the next few years. The development of these projects is also subject to the continuing demand for mineral commodities from neighboring countries and on world market prices. The supply of natural gas for domestic use is expected to increase in the next 2 years following major pipeline projects coming on-stream and recent gas field discoveries made in 2009 and 2010." [Author]
Skidmore, Monique and Wilson, Trevor. Myanmar, the State, Community and the Environment. Canberra: Asia Pacific Press, 2007. 
About: "This book provides insights into the country’s economic  development, in particular the vital rice-marketing sector and the attempts to expand existing industrial zones. It focuses, for the first  time, on Myanmar’s environmental governance with in-depth case studies,  and on the increasing need for effective environmental protection and  sustainability." [Australian National University]

Research Papers

Egreteau, Renaud. "Jade or JADE? Debating International Sanctions on Burma's Gem Industry," East-West Center Asia Pacific Bulletin 132 (2011).
Summary: "The author discusses how Western-led international sanctions have failed to stem the trade in Burmese gemstones. The Burmese gem industry continues to thrive at a furious pace despite international sanctions. Conventional estimates are that up to 90 percent of the world’s supply in rubies and 70 percent of premium jadeite is of Burmese-origin." [ETH Zurich]


US Geological Survey. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Central Burma Basin and the Irrawaddy-Andaman and Indo-Burman Geological Provinces. US Geological Survey, 2012.

Purpose: To assess the undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Central Burma Basin, the Irrawaddy-Andaman and Indo-Burman Geological Provinces.

Content: "This report assesses the onshore and offshore areas of the Central Burma Basin and the Irrawaddy–Andaman and Indo-Burman Geologic Provinces based on data from oil and gas exploration and production wells, production data, and published geologic reports. Only conventional oil and gas resources were assessed." [Author]

Webb, Stephen and Edel, Robert. Mining in the Asia-Pacific: A Legal Overview . DLA, 2012.

Purpose: Reference guide to the mining industry in the Asia Pacific.

Content: In relation to Myanmar, the document gives a short overview of the key points of Myanmar's mining industry.

Bell, Terry. Measuring the Reverse Flow of Risk, A Case Study of Monywa Copper Project in Burma, Country Indicators for Foreign Policy, June 2005.

Purpose: To outline how corporate practices can affect and be affected by conflict.

Content: "This paper puts forth a case study of Myanmar Ivanhoe Copper Company Ltd.’s (MICCL) operations in Monywa, Burma. Specifically examining the Monywa Copper Project, the paper draws upon data interlinking the operational practices of the company, the threat of wider conflict in Burma and the stability of the Monywa region." [Author]



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