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Agriculture Print Page

Legal Documents

Farmland Law,  August 31, 2012.

Parties: Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation

Purpose: To outline the rules, regulations, duties and rights of people allowed to work on farmland.

Main Agreements: This law relates to the persons allowed to work on the farmland, leasing and mortagaging of the right to work farmland, supervision and facilitation of farmland, grievence and compensation, and other matters.

Vacant, Fallow and Virgin Lands Management Rules, August 31, 2012.

Parties: Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation

Purpose: To outline the rules, regulations, rights and duties of the people allowed to utilize vacant, fallow, and virgin land.

Main Agreements: This law is concerned with the rights to work on or utilize vacant, fallow and virgin lands, guarantee and land tax, rules and regulations to be observed by those granted rights to work on and utilize vacant, fallow and virgin lands, monitoring, and other related matters.

Environmental Conservation Law, March 30, 2012.

Parties: Pyidaungsu Hluttaw (Assembly of the Union)

Purpose: Implementation of the Myanmar National Environmental Policy.

Main Agreements: This law deals with the formation of the environmental conservation committee, duties and powers relating to the environmental consenvation of the Ministry, environmental emergency, environmental quality standards, environmental conservation, management of urban environment and other related matters.

Development of Border Areas and National Races Law, August 13, 1993.

Parties: State Law and Order Restoration Council

Purpose: Development of the border areas.

Main Agreements: This law aims to preserve the culture, literature and customs of the national races; to eradicate totally the cultivation of poppy plants by establishing economic enterprises; and to preserve and maintain the security, prevalence of law and order and regional. peace and tranquillity of the border areas.



Thein, San. “Industrial Readjustment in Myanmar: Agro-Industrial Preparedness for Integration With the AEC.” In Industrial Readjustment in the Mekong River Basin Countries: Toward the AEC, edited by Yasushi Ueki and Teerana Bhongmakapat. Bangkok: Bangkok Research Center, 2012.

About: This chapter analyses the economic performances, investment climate, industrial structures and performance, constraints and barriers, to identify the potential industry and its prospects, and to highlight the current reform measures in the country by the government and its civil society. Further, it suggests remedial measures for industrial readjustment and preparedness to be fully integrated with Asean Economic Community. 


Research Papers

Dapice, David.  “Rice Policy in Myanmar: It’s Getting Complicated”, Ash Center for Democratic Governance and Innovation, (2013)

Summary: This paper focuses on the reasons for a sharp rise in paddy prices and rice exports from Myanmar.

Springate-Baginski, Oliver and Tint, Kyaw, et al. "Is Community Forestry In Myanmar Fulfilling Its Potential?" Ecosystem Conservation and Community Development Initiative (2011).
Summary: This paper aims to fill the gap in knowledge over the progress of Community Forestry in Myanmar through a systematic study. It presents the key data and findings, and offers policy recommendations and concludes that there is much potential for enhancing the livelihood benefits through both livelihood oriented forest management and also value addition and marketing development.
Warr, Peter. “The Failure of Myanmar’s Agricultural Policies,” Southeast Asian Affairs (2000).
Summary: "The article focuses on the problems of agriculture within the Myanmar economy and the reforms that are required for improved agricultural performance" [Author]


Burnley, JasmineA New Dawn For Equitable Growth in Myanmar. Making the Private Sector Work for Small-Scale Agriculture. Oxfam, 2013.

Purpose: Briefing on the potential of equitable growth.

Content: "The new wave of political reforms have set Myanmar on a road to unprecedented economic expansion, but, without targeted policy efforts and regulation to even the playing field, the benefits of new investment will filter down to only a few, leaving small-scale farmers – the backbone of the Myanmar economy – unable to benefit from this growth. If Myanmar is to meet its ambitions on equitable growth, political leaders must put new policies and regulation to generate equitable growth at the heart of their democratic reform agenda." [Author]

Michigan State University and the Myanmar Development Resource Institute’s Center for Economic and Social Development. A Strategic Agricultural Sector and Food Security Diagnostic for Burma. USAID, 2013.

Purpose: Offer options to improve agricultural performance.

Content: "This report provides a menu of strategic options for improving agricultural performance under both Long Game and Short Game scenarios. For both, the report identifies early actions that will lay the foundation for a successful Long Game under which accelerated, broad-based agricultural growth contributes to faster national income growth, improved food security, and increased political stability going forward." [Author]

Winn, Tun. Grain and Feed Annual Report 2013 Union of Burma. USDA Foreign Agricultural Service, 2013.

Purpose: Assessment of commodity and trade issues.

Content: "Burma’s rice paddy production and exports are expected to increase in MY 2012/2013. Corn production is expected to expand due to strong demand from domestic and Chinese feed mills. Wheat imports are expected to grow as consumers change their food preferences and exports of beans and pulses are expected to continue strong due to demand from India." [Author]

Woods, Kevin. "The Politics of the Emerging Agro-Industrial Complex in Asia’s ‘Final Frontier’: The War on Food Sovereignty in Burma" (Paper Presented at the Conference entilted Food Sovereignty: a Critical Dialogue, at Yale University, September 14-15, 2013).

Purpose: Explain the neoliberal transformation.

Content: "This paper uncovers how regional political histories that are defined by very particular racial and geographical undertones give shape to Burma's emerging agro-industrial complex." [Author]

The Burma Environmental Working Group. Burma's Environment: People, Problems, Policies. Chiang Mai: Wanida Press, 2011.

Purpose: Outline key biodiversity areas, a list of threatened species, and conservation corridors, and identify priorities for conservation investment.

Content: "This report aims to achieve the following main objectives: to review the current state of environmental protection in Burma (including domestic and international policies and mechanisms, and the role of local and international NGOs and UN agencies), to highlight key environmental problems and the impacts on local people and the environment and to provide analysis on conflict over natural resources in ethnic areas before and after the elections in 2010." [Author]

Than, Maung M. and Myint Oo. Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010: Country Report Myanmar. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization, 2010.

Purpose: Assessment of forest resources.

Content: "This report is based on the thematic elements of sustainable forest management acknowledged in intergovernmental forest-related fora and includes variables related to the extent, condition, uses and values of forest resources, as well as the policy, legal and institutional framework related to forests." [Authors]


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